Consistent with God’s injunction to “fill the earth and subdued it; and have dominion over for fish of the sea and over birds of the air and over every living thing that moves upon the earth” (genesis 1:28), industrialists valued nonhuman nature as a resource. (white 1967). Nature, they believed, has no value in enough itself, but acquires value according to its use by humankind (Locke 1992).

The philosophy of ecology
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